The property of tomato is known to be thermophilic; therefore, it is not always possible to bring the fruits of tomatoes to full maturity in the open air. Using greenhouses for growing vegetables is an ideal option for those who live in temperate regions. But there are peculiarities of tomato farming in greenhouse conditions. Knowing them will help to achieve high yields of delicious tomatoes.
Ways to plant a tomato in a greenhouse
There are two methods of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. About each of them is useful to have an idea.
Proper seed planting in the ground
Despite the fact that the temperature in the greenhouse rises during the day due to the bright March sun, it is cold at night. For planting seeds you need them temper in advance. To do this, after soaking the material is placed in the refrigerator, then in warm water. Now the sunflower seeds are ready to grow.
To avoid this, a special indoor heating will help. It happens:
- biological with the help of fresh manure;
Having stuffed the greenhouse with a shovel with hot manure at the end of February, you can sow the seeds. Heat them enough until mid-May. Heat the manure, pouring it with hot water, sprinkling with quicklime.
Good heat keep the shelter of the walls of the mats in two layers. Three days later, the manure is leveled, ground is poured on it. It can be planted tomato seeds. Accelerated growth of hardened seedlings allows them to bear fruit a month and a half earlierthan garden beds.
How to plant tomato seedlings
Rassadny way to grow tomatoes easier. There are some nuances of planting seeds and sprouts that have appeared. In the spring, sow tomatoes for seedlings in greenhouses not earlier than March 20. As soon as she reaches the age of sixty days, you can sit or sit on a permanent place in the room, for example, on a windowsill.
For seedlings air temperature is important - it should reach eighteen degrees during the day, sixteen at night. Watering seedlings is the first month three times. The water used is warm, well settled. When the first shoots appear, watering is carried out up to once a week.
Pike seedlings planted in place, preparing a layer of earth at 17 centimeters, then pouring it to twenty centimeters. The soil should consist of equal parts of humus, sod land with the addition of a small amount of river sand.Before planting seedlings in the hole add wood ash
Before planting 50 grams of wood ash in each prepared well or furrow, carefully mix it with the ground. Planting tomato sprouts to produce deep, reaching the bottom of the racks.
Stretched seedlings - landing features
Because of the thin stem, tomato seedlings often break, so when you transplant, you must follow a number of rules:
- For planting seedlings sprouts suitable cloudy day or morning low temperature of air.
- The long stem fits into the landing fossa ring. You can lay the kusutik horizontally, leaving a stem on the surface that is no longer than forty centimeters long or, on the contrary, leaving most of it underground.
- Cut off the bottom leaves and stepchildren on the stem.
- Carefully pour soil into the hole, trying not to damage the shoots.
- Drive a peg next to which tether seedlings.
- At the end of the procedure, the bushes are watered.
If in the beginning of growth the sprouting sprouts will lag behind in the development of their counterparts, then after the formation of new roots the tomatoes will become stronger.
What is the square-nested way of disembarkation
When planting seeds or seedlings of tomatoes in the ground using a square-cluster method that will make caring for tomatoes easier. And for plants it will be better to pass nutrient absorption. With such a planting each bush enough light.
The plan for planting a tomato in a square-nested way is as follows:
- In one nest 70x70 centimeters two or three plants of standard and determinant species are placed.
- Early tomato enough two for one nest.
- With average and late terms of ripening - on one plant. If you increase the nest by twenty centimeters, you can land two tomatoes, reducing the planting density slightly.
After landing is necessary air more oftenthat will avoid the spread of fungal diseases indoors.To prevent the appearance of fungus, the greenhouse must be thoroughly aired.
The best time for planting a tomato
Spring, which arrived in a timely manner with stable weather, is the main condition for planting vegetables other than proper courtship and watering. For a seedling growing method, planting it in an unheated greenhouse is made in the first decade of May. At the same time, it is necessary to additionally warm the walls of the enclosed room, covering them with mats.
In regions with warm climates, heated greenhouses are prepared for tomatoes. in Marchand with moderate, including Western Siberia, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk - in the end of April. The spring sun will allow you to get enough tomatoes for their growth of heat and light.
Placement of tomatoes in the greenhouse
In accordance with the choice of varieties of tomato, greenhouse designs produce and plant young bushes:
- For indeterminate tomatoes choose the chess arrangement of bushes. They need to be placed in rows with the distance between them. no more than eighty centimeters. The distance between plants will be half a meter in the formation of one stem, and two - seventy centimeters.
- Determinate species need row spacing in half a meter. The distance of the bushes from each other is thirty centimeters to those that grow two or three stems. It is reduced to the norm of twenty-five units, if one stem is formed.
Comply with the rules for placing a tomato is important, otherwise they will not have enough nutrients, moisture, light and air.
Optimum bed width
Device beds depends on the area of the greenhouse premises. With a standard area of 3x6 beds the place will suit along the wall. High-quality lighting beds will be in its direction to the west.
The height of the soil in relation to the track is done in 40 cm. The width of the beds can be in 60 or 90 cm. For full care, you will need a path a little less than half a meter wide.
Care must be taken of the location of the necessary equipment and the sufficient width of the tracks. This will allow proper care of the tomato beds.It is necessary to think in advance of sufficient width of the tracks in the greenhouse.
Features of the location of stunted and tall varieties
For proper placement of tomato bushes, you can use the following recommendations:
- Tall varieties fit in two rows, as they are left in the nest of two stalks. And the distance between the rows reaches eighty centimeters.
- The landing would be perfect in the middle premises of tall varieties, On the sides - undersized. When ripening at different times, you can harvest the tomato constantly.
- With a modest size of a tall greenhouse, they arrange a bed in one row on the sides, and undersized - in two rows in the middle of the room.
Consider the location of different varieties of plants and choose the approach to planting is necessary in advance.
Polycarbonate greenhouses: growing nuances
From the advantages of polycarbonate greenhouses can be distinguished:
- small mass;
- long service;
- low thermal conductivity;
- high transparency.
Agrotechnology of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse: planting dates, distances between bushes
In the first days of May You can start planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse. At this time, the seedlings already have a strong root system, a thick stem, one or two floral brushes.
After hardening the seedlings in the open air for two weeks, it is sprayed with a solution of boric acid. This will prevent the fall of the buds. Before planting, the two lower leaves on the sprouts are removed. The plant layout is the same as in ordinary greenhouses.
Landing step by step
Before planting a tomato in a greenhouse, it is necessary to add humus, peat, phosphate and potash fertilizers to the prepared beds. For soil disinfection it needs to be processed - sprayed with potassium permanganate solution or treatment with Zaslon.For disinfection of soil is processed by the preparation Barrier
The prepared wells are placed seedlings using square-nested or tape-nested method. The depth of the holes is not more than twenty centimeters. For better assimilation of phosphorus, which is necessary for tomatoes for proper development, wood ash is added to the wells.
Depending on soil moisture and air in the greenhouse, seedlings are watered two - three liters per bush. Well planted tomatoes planted in the evening in cloudy weather.
Plant Care Requirements
For active growth of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, you must create the following conditions:
- air temperature in 22 degrees, but not above 25, soils - over fifteen.
- ventilation for fresh air in the room;
- moisture levels remain at 70 percent.
- pour over as drying top layer of soil;
- fertilizing with the addition of monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate weekly with irrigation;
- carrying out pollination with shaking of bushes during flowering.
Compliance with all the rules of care for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse will lead to continuous fruiting bushes.Watering is done as the topsoil dries.
It is no secret that you can get high yields of tomatoes in the early stages only by growing them in a greenhouse. In addition to this plant in protected ground less attacked by pestsDo not suffer from diseases.
Greenhouses ensure proper operation of the ventilation channel in the following way: they carefully and regularly wipe the walls of the structure. If the right place for the installation of the greenhouse is chosen - well lit, without shading from the trees, buildings, the light will easily penetrate into it.
Before starting the preparation of tomato seedlings for the greenhouse, it is necessary to select such plant varieties that can grow well in greenhouse conditions.
Preparation and disinfection of soil for future beds required, depends on the health of plants.
Increases the resistance of tomatoes to disease spraying of copper sulphate, boiling water.
Caring for tomatoes that are grown in greenhouses, is different from those that grow in the open field.
Peculiarities of courtship after planting seedlingsTo prevent drops from falling onto leaves, drip watering is perfect.
For young seedlings it is important to carry out timely watering, introduction of optimal doses of fertilizers. A week after planting, they begin to water the plants. Before flowering, watering is carried out with a break of five days. One square meter - one bucket of warm water. Water under the root, trying to keep drops of moisture from falling on the leaves. Suitable and drip irrigation method.
Two weeks after landing, exercise fertilizing bushes with mulleindiluted in water to five hundred milligrams - ten liters, add ten grams of ammonium nitrate, fifty - superphosphate, fifteen - potassium chloride. The next time after the appearance of the flowers, the ripening of the fruit must be treated with fertilizers, doubling the amount of minerals when dissolved in a bucket of water.
What is the difference of care in greenhouses and greenhouses
Greenhouses are used for a smooth transition seedlings from home to open ground. Therefore, the timing and rules of planting a tomato are the same for both greenhouses and greenhouses.
It can not exceed two and a half meters from the soil surface. So that the soil is not sprinkled from the walls of the greenhouse, they are sheathed with boards. Install greenhouses on the southern slopes of the site, this will avoid flooding the area.The greenhouse must be installed on the south side of the plot.
Feed tomato bushes need during budding and fruit formation. Every month fertilizer or compost is added between the rows. Purchase fertilizers in specialized stores, taking into account the importance of the presence of a large amount of nitrogen in them.
Suitable for feeding mullein, bird droppings, mineral supplements. All types of fertilizer are diluted in a bucket of water and applied after watering the bushes. Per square meter is enough bucket solution.
When to air
In order for plants to receive more air, light, it is necessary to open the doors of the greenhouse for ventilation. The procedure will help reduce fever and humidity. High parameters of humidity, the heat will not let the fruit tied, pollination slows down.
Airing is included in the phytophthora prevention measures. In good dry weather, you can leave the greenhouse open for the night.
How to plant to harvest a good cropGreat harvest - the dream of every gardener
Getting a big harvest of juicy fruits is the dream of every gardener. For this is important observe the landing terms vegetables, when the temperature in the greenhouse will be maintained at night at the level of twenty-five degrees of heat.
Tomatoes will grow better in polycarbonate greenhouses. But during the hot summer it is enough to hold the bushes for the first time under the film. Although it is in the greenhouse that crops are harvested earlier and more often.
Variety selection tomato is important. There are tomatoes, which in the greenhouse give rich fees, and in the open field they do not sow badly. It is best to choose hybrids that do not need pollination and they are excellent fruit. The resistance of hybrid species to diseases that prevent an increase in yield is also noted.
How does soda help
For powdery mildew prevention Tomatoes use baking soda. To prepare the solution, take four liters of water, add a tablespoon of soda and half a teaspoon of liquid soap. Well stirred, spend spraying the bushes of tomatoes in the greenhouse once a week.
Most types of tomato require a garter of stems to pegs. Garter plants spend subject to grade. To early and undersized grades it is optional.Low-growing varieties of tomatoes do not need a garter
How to tie a greenhouse
The material is never used wire, durable fishing line, hard thread, thin string. Such materials will easily cut the stem. Strips of fabric two to three centimeters wide are the best choice. Before the procedure, they must be disinfected by scalding with boiling water or stretching with laundry soap.
Near the tomato drive in pegs long 30 cm above the stalks and loosely bind the stem to them.
Another method of garter - device trellis. Stakes are driven in along the beds, pulling hard wire between them in several rows. During the growth of tomatoes, they are charged for wire or brushes are hung on hooks.
Garter undersized and tall varieties
It is better to bind undersized varieties individually to the pegs. But the hand of the ripe fruits of tall species such a garter will not stand. Therefore, for tall tomatoes would be better construction trellis. With this method, successful growth of stepsons is possible.
Do I need a node
The central stem of the plant is wrapped with a strip of material with its hands, crossing the ends with a figure eight or twisting it, tied to a support. It is not necessary to do a strong knot, otherwise it will be difficult to remove it. Enough to tie in the form of a bow. After the growth of the stem, the first dressing is removed, tied up higher.
Hang on the trellis or tie up - which way is better
Both options are convenient for tomato growth. Brushes tall tomatoes tied to the top of the trellis or hookedlocated at the top. In both cases, the fruit continues to grow successfully no matter how they hang.Tall tomatoes are hanging on hooks
What can be used as a peg
It is convenient to prepare individual pegs or sticks for tying tomato bushes. They will serve for several years.
You can replace them:
- trimming fittings and metal fixtures;
- metal rods;
- thin plastic pipes;
- wooden slats.
Organization of watering tomatoes from planting to harvest
Полив играют important role in the care of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse.
First watering frequency
After landing, it is necessary to take a break in soil moistening, which will allow harden root system young plants. Three days later, under each bush pour in up to two liters of water. Then the number of procedures increase.After strengthening the roots, up to 2 liters of water is poured under each bush.
The best time for watering is morning. And then open the greenhouse for airing. Watering is enough once or twice a week.
Peculiarities of watering in a polycarbonate greenhouse
In the greenhouse, watering tomatoes in the flowering phase often doubles the amount of water. The best option would be a break in moistening. in two days. After the formation of ovaries begin to reduce the frequency of watering. At the same time take into account the weather conditions. With an extremely wet summer, it is enough to water the plants once every two weeks.
How to water the tomatoes
High yields in the greenhouse are obtained if watering is carried out with water at a temperature of 20-25 degrees. Many people add a tablespoon of table salt and a glass of wood ash to a bucket of water. Pouring half a liter of solution under each bush, you can harvest a good crop of sweet, meaty tomatoes.
Tomatoes are poured over, adding a bit of grass to the water.
Organization of drip irrigation plantsDrip irrigation can be organized independently of the hose and dropper
Using homemade droppers for irrigating tomatoes is important for moistening. root area plants. Water in this case is served in small portions.
For the device of this method of irrigation need hoses with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Attached to the dropper or drip tape. The hose is attached to the faucet or immersed in a container of water. Lay the system along the landings, sprinkled lightly with soil. Through the tape or dropper water will flow directly to the root system of the vegetable crop.
How to water seedling material
Since the future harvest depends on the condition of the seedlings, it is necessary to know how to water it properly. Due to lack of moisture, young shoots can quickly die. When sowing seeds reduce the frequency of watering, making two days break.
As soon as the first leaves appear, they observe the drying of the upper layer of the soil. Only then produce watering or spraying. Two or three days before the picking, the soil is softened by irrigation and the first top dressing. The sprouts are then easier removed from the ground.
Four days after transplantation, seedlings begin to water, bringing it to up to once a week. You can increase the amount of moisture, if the intensity of sunlight increases, which leads to drying of the soil.
For planting tomatoes to grow them, there are some peculiarities. Knowing all the nuances of how to care for them in ordinary greenhouses and polycarbonate greenhouses is important in order to get high yields of tomatoes.