All gardeners want to see a variety of fruit trees in their garden. But what to do when the territory is small and you need to distribute it as rationally as possible? In this case, columnar trees will be an excellent solution.
Description and history of selection of columnar pears
Bred Kolonovidnye pear breeder Kachalkin. The main differences from other types are:
- small size;
- great fruitfulness.
By the way, in spite of the fact that in all descriptions it is a bonsai, in individual cases its height can reach 2 meters.
Kolonovidnye pears are of two types:
- natural (from seedlings);
The trunk of the columnar pear is larger than that of the usual fruit trees. And branches with fruits are located along the entire length of the trunk. Unnecessary branches are removed without difficulty.Variety of columnar pears
Colonoid pear varieties
Sapphire. The first fruit brings in 3 years. Fruits can be picked in September. The features of the fruit are considered elongated and greenish-pink. Pears, as a rule, are large, the weight of one reaches 250 g. Sapphira does not like frosts, therefore storage in the basement will not work for her. Possible cultivation in the suburbs.Saphira Pear Variety
Carmen. The fruits are ripening very quickly, in summer they are ready for assembly. Ripe pears bright burgundy color and very large, about 300 g. Sweet.Pear carmen
Tenderness. This variety belongs to the autumn. Fruit weight mediocre, up to 150g. Features: egg-shaped, rich green color. The flesh is juicy and tender, the taste is sour.Pear tenderness
G-2. The fruits ripen in late November. The fruits of the standard pear-shaped form are knobby. Color is green and pink. Pears smell good and sweet enough.
Decor. Fruits at the end of summer, the beginning of autumn. The first pears can be obtained in the 2nd year of planting. Fruits are yellow, oval.Pear Variety Decor
G-4. Crop brought in 3 years. Autumn variety. Pears are richly yellow, they can get a pink shade in the sun.
Honey The fruits ripen in summer, to the middle of August. The fruits have a yellow-green color. One of the largest, the weight of one pear reaches 400 g. It tastes very sweet and juicy, the flesh has a pleasant light aroma.
G-3. Variety can be collected in September and October. The fruits are of normal pear shape, but wide and uneven. The skin is bright yellow, very juicy. Like honey, a large one - 400 g. The variety easily endures frosts.Coloniform pear G-3
Knight vert The first fruits can be obtained in 2 years from the moment of planting. Pears are big and pink. Normally survives at frosts up to - 20 degrees.Tree with the fruits of pear Knight
Pavlovskaya. Fruits appear on the 2nd year, in October. The fruits are large, sweet and juicy. The skin is thin, yellow-pink color.
D-5. I ripen in August - September. Externally yellow, weight reaches 250 g, the flesh is sour-sweet and juicy. Resistant to diseases and tolerates frosts.
Sanremy. Fruits in October and November. The main feature is the tender and sweet taste of the fruit. They are fragrant and large, their weight is more than 400 g. They do not require special care and survive winters without difficulties.Pear fruit sanremy
Advantages and disadvantages
First, consider the advantages of the landing of columnar pears on the site.
- Small size. The trees are very compact and will not take up much space, even in the smallest garden.
- Skoroplodnost. In the second year, after disembarking, you can get a full-fledged harvest, and not wait 4-5 years as in the case of an ordinary pear.
- Variety. There is a mass of varieties. Their variety makes it possible to choose the one that will take root and will bear fruit in each, separate region.
- Transportability of fruits. Due to the small size of all fruits, you can reach out with your hands and gather the entire crop, and not leave the crowns to be eaten by birds.
In spite of the list of advantages, columnar pears have their disadvantages.
- Short lifespan. With normal care, such a tree lives up to 10 years.
- Care. Requires care more than the usual pear. You need to carefully treat fertilizers and other organics.
Initially, before landing it is necessary to properly prepare the ground. A large hole is pulled out, up to 80 cm deep and 0.5 m wide. In it pours 20 liters of water. We must wait until the liquid is completely absorbed. After that, add the composition of: potassium sulfate, sand, superphosphate and humus.
Fill this mixture with half the pit. We put a sapling and fill it with soil. Well seal the tree.
The landing takes place either in April-May, or in September-October. Immediately after planting seedlings need a lot of water. Therefore, you need to water 3-4 times a week. The first fertilizer should be carried out before the appearance of the sheets, each other with an interval of 3 weeks.
The roots of colony-shaped pears are usually close to the surface, you should not forget about it when you cultivate the soil around the tree.
Also, besides the seedling, the columnar pear can be obtained by grafting. This method also gives excellent results. The fruit becomes many times larger and much faster, but the vital forces of the tree are spent twice as fast. If you take good care of the grafted tree, it will bloom in a year, and the first fruits can be obtained in two.
Below we offer to watch a short video, which says how to plant a columnar pear:
Care and pruning
Unfortunately, proper care for seedlings requires both material and time costs. But after 2-3 years, all expenses will be reimbursed by a good harvest.
Do not neglect the pruned pear trimming. If trees are cut correctly, then they grow by 10-12 cm in a year. And besides growing up, 3-4 new branches grow.
If in the second year you noticed that the tree is well rooted and grows normally then leave 4-5 fruits on it. Then every year increase the number of fruits. Every year, follow the size and number of fruits, because the fruit load for each variety and each individual tree is individual. For example, if last year there were more pears, then the tree is overloaded and the number of fruits must be normalized.Growing of the pied pear in the garden
To obtain the expected yield of the trees must be regularly fertilized. It is important to do this at the right moment. According to the rules, top dressing occurs during the spring and summer. Best as a fertilizer to use chicken droppings and slurry, urea or saltpeter is also suitable. The first feeding takes place in the spring, after the appearance of the first leaves, the second after a two-week pause, and the third, after 4 weeks, after the first.
Proper preparation for winter is a serious stage. Of course, the columnar pears are frost resistant, but young seedlings require additional care. It is necessary to build protection from the materials at hand, to ensure that it was dry and did not get inside the mouse or any other rodent. Inside, you can leave the needles or lay a straw.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
The main problem for the columnar pear is fruit gall midge. When it appears shoots gradually darken, the ovary dries and falls. An umbellate and greenish aphid can also damage a tree. As a result of the appearance of white scab, a white precipitate begins to appear on the leaves. Then they dry up and fall away.
The best and easiest option to propagate the columnar pear is planting ready seedlings. Still, it can be grown from seed or by grafting. Seeds are rarely used, because the method requires a lot of time.
Green cuttings are necessary for grafting.
- Initially, cuttings are cut. They should have more than five sheets.
- A couple of days cuttings soaked with root-forming solution.
- Stalks are covered with soil.
- If he caught on, it will quickly grow.
A very popular and easy breeding method for pears is grafting. Gardeners comment that in this way the tree grows much better than in other variants. The stock can be a regular pear.
All fruits of columnar pears are distinguished by their special taste and delicate aroma.. They can be stored for a long time, and the tree itself is not afraid of frost. If you provide the pears with the care they need, then as a result you can get a good harvest. In addition to practical properties, columnar pears can be an excellent addition to the design, for example, serve as a fence or an original decoration.