Gardeners appreciate gooseberries for abundant crops, easy care, low soil fertility and warmth, delicious dietary berries.
For the high content of vitamins and minerals it is called the northern grapes. With proper care, the shrub fruits up to fifteen, in especially favorable conditions - up to thirty years. Productivity reaches twenty five kilograms from one plant.
In this article we will just talk about how to care for gooseberries in August and September, as well as learn how to grow bushes in the country
The main types of work on the care of gooseberries in summer and autumn
Care for the prickly berry during the season includes:
- pruning and thinning;
- protection from pests and diseases;
- top dressing;
Begin work with the choice of landing site. Preferred solar, protected from the wind areas. To the fertility of the soil gooseberry is not picky. Does not tolerate wetlands. You should choose places where groundwater does not come closer than one, and preferably one and a half meters to the surface.
Excessively light, heavy, acidified soils will have to be cultivated. When planting, it is necessary to fertilize, remove dry and damaged roots, shorten the shoots on the seedling. To deepen a root neck approximately on three - five centimeters below, than the bush grew in nursery. Planted better in the fall before the onset of frost. Autumn plantings take root better than spring.
Pruning and thinning gooseberries in the country
The first pruning is done immediately after planting the seedling. The shoots are shortened, on each save two to three buds. In a year, several strong, ready-for-wintering yearlings are formed from them.
Sanitary pruning is done regularly. They remove broken, diseased, damaged creeping, twisted shoots. In the fall, spend forming trim.
Some varieties of gooseberry, as well as specimens growing in particularly favorable conditions, provide abundant basal growth. There is a risk of thickening. In these cases, the excess shoots are carefully removed.
Gooseberry does not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil. Therefore, it cannot be planted in the lowlands, where the spring lasts long, or the groundwater is high. However, the berry needs regular and abundant watering. In the first year of the plant's life, such a measure ensures the active growth of strong shoots.
In the future, a sufficient amount of moisture contributes to a greater yield of large tasty berries. Under the young bushes need to pour out ten to twenty liters of water each week, for adults - twice as much.
If it is not possible to water the gooseberries every few days, you can apply a different scheme. Abundantly shed after flowering during the growth of berries and shoots, then - when the ovary appears, in the fall to produce water recharge irrigation to create conditions for the growth of the root system and prepare the plants for wintering. Each time, pour at least five buckets of water under the bush.
To avoid soil erosion and stagnant fluid at the root collar, a groove is arranged around the crown's perimeter. The drip method has proven itself well: fluid consumption decreases, efficiency increases. Significantly reduce the frequency of irrigation helps mulch.
Gooseberry tolerates short dry periods. But prolonged drying will reduce the number of berries, it happens not for one season. Therefore, it is important to maintain a soil moisture level of at least 70 percent.
During the ripening of the fruit should be watered evenly and regularly. Otherwise, the berries can crack.Pruning gooseberry late autumn
Weeding and fertilizer
The absence of weeds is an important condition for the cultivation of gooseberries. You need to remove all the grass under the bushes and between the rows, it is better to manually, especially carefully - wheat grass creeping. The task is complicated by the spinousness of most varieties and the fact that the fibrous root growing in breadth shallow from the surface of the earth is easily damaged.
Mulching, among others, helps to solve this problem. Some gardeners use tree trunks from roofing material or made industrially from modern materials. Such shelters do not let the light through, and the growth of grass under them is oppressed.
It is not recommended to use herbicides on private plots for weed control in plantings of berries. There is a risk of chemical accumulation in the soil under berry bushes with regular treatment for several years.
Pest and disease protection
During the growing season, it is necessary regularly (ideally - daily) to carefully inspect the gooseberry to notice the first signs of the appearance of pests or diseases. Upon detection, immediate action is required to suppress the lesion.
More often than other harmful insects gooseberries inhabit:
- kidney mite;
- glass bowl;
To combat them use:
- copper sulphate;
- karbofos solution;
- biological insecticides.
Use folk remedies:
- the plants are sprayed with an infusion of wood ash (one kilogram of ash is poured with three liters of boiling water and infused for 24 hours);
- before the end of snow melting and until the appearance of green kidney cones, water the bushes with boiling water from a watering can once;
- Planted next to the bushes (and a half - two meters) plants that repel pests: garlic, dill, marigold, chrysanthemum.
It is useful to add a small amount of soap solution to the indicated preparations and to the ash extract.
If, despite the measures taken, the pests have not disappeared, you can repeat the treatment after flowering (except boiling water).Spraying solutions over the gooseberries against pests
Gooseberry disease and methods of treatment
Sphereoteka (powdery mildew). Fungus. Processing should begin immediately after the discovery of the first signs - white bloom. Apply: Bordeaux mixture, sodium bicarbonate solution (5 g per 1 l of water), ash infusion or soda ash solution (50 g per 10 l of water). To prevent problems in the spring and closer to the fall sprayed with the drug "Caratan" or analogues. Immediately after flowering, twice, with an interval of eight to ten days, treated with infusion of cow manure.
Septoriosis (white spot). Brown plaques appear first. Affected leaves must be removed and burned immediately. Treat bushes with boric acid solution. To prevent loosening, introduce copper sulfate into the soil.
Glass rust. The first symptoms are orange spots on the leaves. For treatment process after flowering Bordeaux liquid. To prevent the spring shed soil solution of potassium permanganate.
Gooseberry anthracnose. Brown-brown tubercles on the leaves. Treatment: spray the bush with a solution of copper sulphate, the ground under it - with a solution of boric acid, Bordeaux or zinc liquid.
For mechanical protection, tree-trunk circles, made, for example, of roofing felt, have proven themselves well. Laid under the shrub, they impede the access of pests from the soil.Blackberry Gooseberry
How to feed gooseberries?
Berry responsive to systematic, but not excessive feeding. In early spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the form of a solution: 50 grams of ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 20-30 grams per square meter of planting (approximately 60g under a shrub).
The pellets are scattered under the bushes in the snow at the very beginning of melting: nutrients, gradually dissolving, are delivered to the roots with melt water.
Potash, phosphate and organic fertilizers are left for autumn.
The surface of the earth must be kept loose. Under the crown, periodically gently loosen to a depth of three to five cm, if necessary, at the same time closing up fertilizer and removing weeds.
Mature compost, humus, dry fallen leaves and grass, rotted peat are used as mulch. Cover the podkustov space with a layer of at least 5 cm. Mulch retains moisture, well structures the soil, stimulates an increase in the amount of organic matter, slows the growth of weeds.
How to care for gooseberries after harvest in August and September
Late summer and autumn laid the foundation for plant health and the harvest of the next season. It is necessary to start immediately after picking the berries, and before the onset of frost have time:
- produce thorough weeding under the bushes, remove weeds, fallen leaves and other vegetation residues;
- Abundantly shed every plant;
- dig the ground under bushes and between the rows,
- process shrubs means of protection against diseases and pests;
- to cut off the old and weakened branches;
- prepare for overwintering.
Immediately after removing the fruits, the gooseberries are carefully weeded, removing grass, weed roots, sticks, twigs and other debris from under it. Fallen leaves are immediately burned in order to avoid overwintering of pathogens in them.
Create moisture reserve
About a month before the arrival of frosts, it is important to produce a so-called water recharge irrigation. At each bush will need at least 50 - 60 liters of water, you can pour in two - three stages.The fluid supply will allow the gooseberry to endure cold weather, resist diseases, and form fruit and vegetative buds.Gooseberry care procedures: watering and mulching
At the end of the harvest, the gooseberries are fed with superphosphate (up to 50g) and potassium chloride (up to 30g). As a potash fertilizer, you can apply one liter of ash. Phosphate fertilizers affect the increase in yield. Potash provide drought resistance, frost resistance, increase immunity to fungal diseases.
In the autumn each bush is “fed” with organic fertilizers:
- humus - one bucket;
- diluted chicken manure (1 to 10) or mullein (1 to 5).
On acidic soils, lime, chalk or dolomite flour must be added.
Reference. Fertilizer rates should be increased if the soil in the area is neutral or slightly alkaline.
Autumn processing gooseberry
Every year at the end of autumn (before the first frosts) they carry out a formative and rejuvenating pruning. In one-year plants leave three to five strong developed shoots. Choose well located to lay the correct base of the bush. The rest is cut flush with the soil surface. The next three to four years also leave some of the most successful gains, the rest are removed. A properly formed adult plant consists of five to six trunks of each age (one-year, two-year, and so on).
The largest number of fruits, as a rule, ripens on two to four-year branches. Anything older than five or six years, leave no sense. Distinguish "oldies" is easy, they are the darkest and largest. Four to five of the strongest annual basal shoots are retained, about the same number of old frame branches and all diseased are removed. Pruning is carried out as close to the ground as possible. Powerful developed branches on old branches can be saved by cutting only the unusable parts.
Gooseberry bushes are thinned if necessary. Condensed less fruitful: too little light penetrates inside, there are no ovaries, a fungus settles. On well-lit branches actively form and develop fruit buds.
Digging open ground
Prior to the establishment of sub-zero temperatures, the soil around the gooseberry should be carefully but gently loosen. Depending on the density of the soil, it is “flooded” with forks or digging with a shovel. Over the whole berry area, the soil is dug up by 18 - 20 cm, under the canopy - by 5-6 cm. At the same time, autumn fertilizers are buried. Small lumps of earth can not break.
Pre-winter digging should not be neglected because it makes it difficult for the pests and causative agents of berry diseases to hibernate in the soil. And the cultivation in the open ground gooseberry next year becomes easier.Preparing gooseberries for winter
Disease prevention: how to treat?
When there are no berries left on the bushes, you can take intensive measures to rescue diseased plants, treat them with appropriate fungicides and insecticides. If the lesions are of irreversible scale, the bush will have to be sacrificed, scooped it up and burned. This loss may allow you to save the remaining instances.
In the autumn, preventive procedures for the prevention of diseases and the spread of pests are carried out. To do this, the shrub and the soil beneath it are carefully treated with Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate and Inta-vir solution.
How to prepare the bushes for winter and how to fertilize?
As a rule, adult berries bear winter well. Young, weakened plants, representatives of heat-loving varieties and gooseberries, “living” in cold climatic zones, need help.
After all the planting works in autumn, the ground should be mulled: cover the ground under bushes and in between rows with a 10 cm layer of natural protective material - rotted manure, ripened humus, peat, sawdust, small branches. In winter, under such a litter is kept warm, organic processes continue. In the northern regions, you can additionally pour dry land to the base of the bush, cover the embankment with agrospanum. With the onset of positive temperatures, you need to remove the entire insulating layer so that the soil warms up in time and the bush leaves the state of rest.
In the zones of severe winter (in the North in Siberia, in the Urals), as well as in gardens with southern varieties and cold winters with little snow, gooseberry branches are gently bent to the ground, fixed with fliers or planks. Top cover with pine or fir spruce branches, additionally covered with snow. The needles not only detain snow, create an additional "fur coat", but also serve as an antiseptic, frightening off rodents and pests. A snow cover will reliably cover and protect from cold.
For additional snow retention and protection from cold winds, hedges are created and barriers are installed.
Gooseberry is a popular, high-yielding and very responsive culture. Grow it is not so difficult. Factors of abundant harvest - correctly selected zoned varieties resistant to damage, their varied assortment in the garden, competent year-round care. Timely and correct work carried out will save the efforts of the gardener and prolong the life of the berry bush.
Garden survivor - gooseberry - for decades will delight lovers of delicious berries.